Institutional Factors of Agriculture (1) Land Tenure and Land Tenancy (ii) Land Holding

Institutional Factors of Agriculture

(1) Land Tenure and Land Tenancy

(ii) Land Holding


The basic objective of land reform is to do social justice with the tillers, land owners, landless labourers, and rural community with the set objective to provide security to the cultivators, to fix a rational rent, the conferment of title to the tiller and to increase the agricultural productivity.The entire concept of land reforms aims at the abolition of intermediaries and bringing the actual cultivator in direct contact with the state.

The scheme of land reforms includes:

  • abolition of intermediaries,and
  • tenancy reforms, i.e. regulation of rent, security of tenure for tenants, and confirmation of ownership on them
  • ceiling on land holdings and distribution of surplus land to landless labourers and small farmers,
  • agrarian reorganization including consolidation of holdings and prevention of subdivision and fragmentation,
  • organisation of co-operative farms, and
  • improvement in the system of land record keeping.

Abolition of Intermediaries

Mahalwari System

Ryotwari System

Tenancy Reforms

Rent Control

Ceiling of Landholdings

Consolidation of Holdings

  • Consolidation of holdings means to bring together in compact block, all the fields of land of a farmer which are well scattered in different parts of the village.
  • Under the scheme, all land in the village is first pooled into one compact block and it is divided into smaller blocks called chaks, and allotted to individual farmer.
  • This is a useful scheme which helped in overcoming the problem of fragmentation of holdings.
  • But unfortunately, the scheme has not been implemented in all the states of the country.
  • There are many hurdles in the implementation of consolidation of holdings in some of the states.

Computerized Land Records

  • The centrally sponsored scheme on computerization of land records was started in 1988-89.
  • At present, the scheme has been implemented in 582 districts out of the 640 districts of the country, leaving those districts where there are no proper land records.
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