• The package programme adopted to increase the production of milk is known as White Revolution in India.
  • The White Revolution in India occurred in 1970, when the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) was established to organize the dairy development through the co-operative societies.
  • Varghese Kuerin was the father of White Revolution in India.
  • The dairy development programme through co-operative societies was first established in the state of Gujarat.
  • The co-operative societies were most successful in the Anand District of Gujarat. The co-operative societies are owned and managed by the milk producers.
  • These co-operatives apart from financial help also provide consultancy.
  • The increase in milk production has also been termed as Operation Flood.


  1. The procurement, transportation, storage of milk at the chilling plants.
  2. Provide cattle feed.
  3. Production of wide varieties of milk products and their marketing management.
  4. Provide superior breeds of cattle (cows and buffaloes), health service, veterinary treatment, and artificial insemination facilities.
  5. Provide extension service.



  • Some of the important achievements of the White Revolution are as under:
  1. The White Revolution made a sound impact on rural masses and encouraged them to take up dairying as a subsidiary occupation.
  2. India has become the leading producer of milk in the world.
  3. The import of milk and milk production has been reduced substantially.
  4. The small and marginal farmers and the landless labourers have been especially benefitted from the White Revolution.
  5. To ensure the success of Operation Flood Programme, research centres have been set up at Anand, Mehsana, and Palanpur (Banaskantha). Moreover, three regional centres are functioning at Siliguri, Jalandhar, and Erode. Presently, there are metro dairies in 10 metropolitan cities of the country, beside 40 plants with capacity to handle more than one lakh litres of milk.
  6. Livestock Insurance Scheme was approved in February 2006 and in 2006-07 on a pilot basis in 100 selected districts across the country. The scheme aims at protecting the farmers against losses due to untimely 2. In most of the villages the cattle are kept under unhygienic conditions.death of animals.
  7. To improve the quality of livestock, extensive cross breeding has been launched.
  8. For ensuring the maintenance of disease-free status, major health schemes have been initiated.
  9. The government implemented livestock insurance on pilot basis in 2005-06.


Problems and Prospects

  1. Collection of milk from the remote areas is expensive, time consuming, and not viable economically.
  2. In most of the villages the cattle are kept under unhygienic conditions.
  3. There are inadequate marketing facilities. The marketing infrastructure needs much improvement.
  4. The breeds of cattle is generally inferior.
  5. The extension service programme is not effective.
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